My New Trainers!

Well, its official. I have my first actual PLC trainers, in addition to the ones on the wall in My Little Factory. I think they’re awesome! They did take 8 weeks to build, but as more are made I think some the logistics things will get worked out. In addition to fabrication time, there is also the time it takes to check out the I/O and get the firmware set up.

Now they aren’t cheap, and I won’t be shipping them to any customer sites, but they do have some excellent features that you won’t find in a typical suitcase-style trainer.

First, notice that there are input, output and power banana-plug jacks on the sides. This allows hardware to be connected for training as I described in last week’s post.

On the other side there are two Ethernet ports, one for programming and one for remote I/O. There is an M12 connector to provide power to dedicated devices, as well as the power switch and power socket. One of the pushbuttons is also wired normally closed, which is helpful when explaining certain programming concepts.

Automation NTH built them and has made two more of their own that we can use with the four laptops I have loaded with software. These will be very handy with the advanced custom classes I am teaching. They and several other trainers will soon be appearing for sale on my business website.

I am also working on some much less expensive trainers for the MicroLogix 1100, shown below.

I’m evaluating this Micro 1100…

These will be in a plastic box and have more limited I/O, though it will have two analog inputs. The reason I chose this platform is that the software is free, yet in most ways it matches the SLC500 platform well enough for training. This will be my attempt at the least expensive A-B demo I can come up with.

For those who have been wondering about the status of My Little Factory, it’s still coming along, though slowly.

The pick and places are mounted, but there are several small widgets that need to be installed before I can run them, not to mention that they aren’t plumbed and the valve banks aren’t mounted yet. Its hard to break off enough time to get everything done. The ball escapements are also still languishing.

In my defense, I have been making a lot of PLC training videos for a customer and am getting better at it. This means that the online PLC classes are much closer along with my next PLC book, which includes lots of advanced stuff.

Anyway, I’m excited to get to use these new demos. Come take a class and check them out!

Posted in My Little Factory, PLCs, Trainers, Training Tagged with: , , , ,

Advanced PLC Training using Industrial Equipment

I just got back from teaching a class in California using the conveyor and training demo mentioned in my previous post on Automation NTH. I have discussed training quite a bit on this blog before, but I feel like this concept deserves special attention.

The class lasted a week and I had three students, all experienced engineers with little or no previous PLC experience. As those of you who follow this blog know, I regularly teach PLC and HMI classes for Automation Training. There are beginning and advanced classes in Allen-Bradley, Siemens PLCs and HMIs, as well as WonderWare, Industrial Communications, and other classes. When marketing classes to a broad variety of students from different backgrounds, it is necessary to standardize the training so that it applies to the widest range of companies and students.

For this class I had to create custom material specific to the customer. I have taught two similar classes using these demos previously for NTH, so some of the material has already been developed, but this is the first time we have tried it at a customer’s location. Since the goal was to create a self-guided course using this equipment it warranted the trip.

So what is the biggest difference between this and a standard PLC training class using pushbuttons and pilot lights? One of the biggest takeaways was just how complex the training could be with real hardware.. For instance, one of the first exercises I assigned was putting the system into Auto and Manual Modes along with the conditions described in my previous post on the System Routine. This is an ideal exercise for bit logic and I/O access since as you can see in the picture there is an HMI with Auto and Manual buttons as well as a selector switch, E-Stop, Power button and indicators reflecting a stack light. This provides a lot of material for discussion of system control and operation. It also segues well into the use of timers for blinking lights and pulsing a buzzer.

After doing several exercises familiarizing students with editing and basic instructions, the class got advanced pretty quickly. I had students create a system UDT and use it for control of their own program, then introduced them to a pre-written program with multiple subroutines, Add-On Instructions(AOIs), an auto sequence and all of the different program sections I have described in the PLC tab and series on this blog. After operating the conveyor demo and seeing how the system operated, I had them go through a series of operations repairing a copy of the program where I had removed rungs from each routine. After that I had them write their own auto sequence to simulate interfacing with an inspection system. We then did one full day on using the HMI software, Allen-Bradley’s FactoryTalk View ME.

Overall the class went well, but we covered a LOT of material in a very short period of time. While this may work for companies who are keeping the equipment for a while, it wouldn’t be very practical for a regional class like I do for Automation Training. The shipping and handling of the equipment alone wouldn’t warrant it. At the same time it was pretty awesome to be able to cover advanced topics like program structure, templates and sequences/state machines.

If you are interested in advanced training like this from NTH or standard PLC training through Automation Training, I would encourage you to contact either of them or hit me up if you have any questions. Of course I also teach my own custom classes in Lebanon, Tennessee, near Nashville.

Posted in Training Tagged with: , , , , ,

Live Sensors Webcast for Control Engineering

Hey, this Frank Lamb from Automation Primer. I will be doing a webcast for Control Engineering magazine on Tuesday, August 22, 2017 at 2 p.m. EST (1 p.m. CST, 11 a.m. PST, I can’t tell you MST because it’s a secret). If you are in Europe or Asia you should probably be sleeping or drinking, but come check it out anyway if you can figure out the time!

To register click HERE

I will be presenting the first part on sensing for machine applications and Chris Thompson from Matrix Technologies will be doing the second half on process control sensing. For attending and answering the highly technical and devious questions we pose at the end you will receive 1 Certified Professional Development Hour (PDH). This can be traded on eBay or The Price Is Right for cool prizes I think… but don’t take my word for it. Anyway, come check it out and come stump the presenters with your sensor application questions!

Hosted by Mark Hoske and sponsored by Balluff and Carlo Gavazzi

Posted in Me, Sensing, Vendors and Manufacturers Tagged with: , , , , ,

Ladder Logic 208: System Routine 2

Today’s post is a continuation of the series on PLC Ladder Logic I started several years ago; for more of these post click on the PLC tab at the top of the site.

In particular this continues my discussion of the System Routine. In Ladder Logic 205 I showed a method of starting an Auto Cycle state or mode, but left much to the imagination as far as how the system or machine might actually get to that state (notice the reference to the Auto Start Sequence). Today I am going to go into a bit more depth on machine starting and safety.

This post also shows a method of generating a pulse train with two timers.

Often it is important not to start machinery instantly, but rather to warn personnel around the machine that it is about to move. This is required for most machinery, with the exception of simpler machine such as test stations. The logic above shows a method of pulsing a horn to warn people that the system is starting. It requires the person starting the machine to hold the button to create the Cycle Start Request signal; the next logic shows how to use the signal to actually start the system.

This is by no means the only way to do this, but it gets across the general idea. A few things to note:
1. The operator must hold down the cycle start button for the entire time for the system to start, if he lets go the timer starts again.
2. The system won’t start unless in Auto Mode with no faults.
3. The system will not stop if in the middle of an auto sequence; this should be modified to taste. It should allow sequences to come to rest in a natural position; a specific sequence step or position can replace the sequence active bit.
4. A fault stops the Auto Cycle immediately. Again, this may not apply in every case.

The Auto Cycle bit or status is not really a mode in itself, it is more of a state within Auto Mode. Generally it is used to allow auto sequences to start or proceed, but not to disable output energization.

The techniques I have listed in these numbered series of Ladder Logic articles are things I teach in my PLC training classes. While most courses do a good job of explaining the instructions themselves, they don’t cover programming technique. If you are interested in learning more, come take a class!

Posted in PLCs, Software & Programming Tagged with: , , , ,

Automation NTH

Over the past six years I’ve written posts about a lot of different companies; machine builders (Nalle Automation/NAS, Wright Industries/Doerfer, even my old company ACS), training companies (Automation Training and Udemy), and a whole bunch of controls manufacturers (check out the PLC tab). Today’s post is the first I think I’ve written on a systems integrator or “controls house” as they’re sometimes called.

Automation NTH is located in LaVergne, TN, close to Nashville. They do controls design and engineering, programming, system commissioning, contracting and have a large UL508A listed panel shop. They have been in operation since 1999 and like many controls companies and machine builders in the area, the principals (like myself) were at Wright Industries for a bit.

When I first moved here in 2006 to work for Wright, they were some of the first people I met, and my wife was hired into their panel shop, so I got to know them pretty well. After leaving Wright at the end of 2011 they were the first company I contracted for, doing programming and design work around the Southeast. I also got to know a lot of their engineers, many of whom also did a spell at Wright.

One thing that is a bit different about NTH is their emphasis on internal training. For several years they have had a program that takes local university engineering students on as interns. The four month program trains them in AutoCAD/electrical design, general controls and PLC programming, and working them in the panel shop. This allows Automation NTH to evaluate the interns and hire many of them when they graduate, ensuring that they are familiar with good controls practices and NTH’s way of doing things.

In addition they have expanded this into a “NTH University” program that provides ongoing training for employees, allowing them to gain experience in various disciplines.

This is a picture of their “PLC Trainer” wall. There are many different brands represented here, and most of the demo’s were built by the interns themselves as final projects. Platforms include Allen-Bradley, Siemens, Modicon, GE, Mitsubishi and more.

Interns and students have used several conveyors. machine vision and pneumatic components to do projects to enhance their skills. Recently Automation NTH has also expanded this program to allow customers from manufacturing facilities to take a one week “crash course” using the NTH University curriculum. Customers have given excellent reviews on this course since it allows technicians and engineers to use real world scenarios in their training.

I have been fortunate to become involved in this course myself recently as the course has been formalized. Both of my books are being used in the classes and new training equipment has been built for the conveyor labs.

A local university, Middle Tennessee State (MTSU) has also ordered 22 trainers for their engineering classes. They looked so good I simply had to order a couple for myself…

I will also be marketing these trainers and other similar ones on my website within the next few months. One thing that allows NTH to make trainers like this very economically is their CNC panel fab machine.

Oh, and did I mention they also have well-trained personnel, and interns? 😀

Posted in Engineering, Machine Builders and Integrators, Training Tagged with: , , , ,

Are Things too Complicated?

Today’s post is inspired by an ongoing adventure I have been having in the design and fabrication of My Little Factory. For those who haven’t been following my post since the beginning of this year, a great deal of my time has been spent building out my training facility, the centerpiece of which is a tabletop demo that students will eventually be able to play around with. I started calling this “My Little Factory” after my April post of the same name.

Part of this little automation demo is a cleated conveyor that I am using to re-create an automation project I did about eleven years ago. Rather than using an indexer or servo to move the pockets consistently, the mechanical designer on the project decided to use a standard VFD (Variable Frequency Drive) and AC motor, along with some photoeyes to detect the position of the cleats. While this might have been a less expensive hardware option than a servo with encoder feedback, the amount of time that it took to make it work correctly more than ate up the savings. Anyway, one of the reasons I decided to re-create this method is that it illustrates some really good points and makes for a fun programming project for students. The basic concept is that the conveyor run signal is applied until the next cleat is detected with a sensor, the conveyor is stopped, and a second sensor is used to verify that the cleat (and therefore the pocket) is in the right position for operations.

When I started this tabletop project I purchased several different fiber-optic amplifiers both to use in this system as well as to help show students some of the wide range of features that photoeyes have. I bought a couple of Keyence amplifiers with all kinds of programmable windows and a set of (very expensive) convergent beam fibers, a couple of Banner’s newest amplifiers (shown above), and a variety of used stuff from EBay.

As I worked on different parts of this project I was always thinking about how I would mount the fiber heads to make them easily adjustable, which amplifiers I might use to illustrate which point, and various other details. Each section of this demo has its own purpose behind it, and once something has been done one way, it can be difficult and time consuming to change. So yesterday I finally got around to building the adjustable sensor mounts and testing the sensors. I decided to use the new Banner sensors partially because they looked really cool and partially because I didn’t have cables for the Keyence amplifiers (which look really cool too…)

The mechanical mounting took longer than I thought it would. I had to make a lot of little brackets and drill/tap little pieces of aluminum, and then make do with whatever 80-20 extrusion pieces I had. Anyway I finally got everything mounted and powered on, and that’s when I was inspired to write this post. The instructions for the fiber amp is about 12 pages long! There are ways to program detection windows and tweak the timing, dynamically teach while the machine is running and set error thresholds, and change the response speed of the signal. What there didn’t seem to be was a simple on-off response to the cleat. As you can see in the picture, there is a number for the magnitude of the light signal and another for the setpoint. In addition the numbers will alternate with warning messages as shown in the leftmost amplifier. After getting it to operate yesterday before I went home, I took this picture this morning. The message “thr Alrt” was blinking, apparently meaning there was too MUCH light entering the receiving fiber. I know this because my green readout read 4000, the maximum magnitude for the amplifier.

Notice also that the fiber next to it has a yellow light at the top showing that it is ON. Not only did the fiber amplifier tell me that there was too much light, it also stopped working as far as I am concerned. When I misaligned the fiber heads a little bit bringing the magnitude down the amplifier output started operating correctly again.

The end result of all of this fun was that I replaced the amplifiers with the two shown above. Though not as sexy looking, these are some of the used fiber amps that I bought on EBay. They have a simple bar graph showing how much light is being received and of course the same type of little yellow light showing that the output is energized. Instead of having six wires there are only four, and if you want it to operate Dark On instead of Light On you have to connect the white wire instead of the black one. It is however a much simpler device.

This picture shows my high-tech test device for checking the input to the PLC, blocking the beam with my finger. While there is no warning or remote teach wiring, this sensor will probably do the job. I say probably because the signal is apparently much faster on the newer amplifier.

When I started in the industrial automation field some twenty-odd years ago, systems were much simpler. Emergency Stop circuits were single channel affairs and PLCs were also much less complicated. Sensors were generally pretty basic also, although Omron used to have a really cool convergent beam sensor that actually physically changed the angle of the lenses. I haven’t seen anything like that for twenty years or so.

Anyway, my solution to the complexity of this new fiber amp was to replace it with one that took less time to set up and would still work even if I set it up wrong. I wonder how many other people have done the same thing when confronted with amazing new products.

What do you think? Are things getting too complicated?

Posted in Automation Concepts, Conveyors, My Little Factory, Photoeyes, Sensors Tagged with: , , , ,

Super Vision!

As some of you may know, especially those of you who have known me since the 1990’s, machine vision used to be a major part of my career. I could conservatively say I was part of at least 40-50 vision projects with over 150 cameras and built many machines where vision was the core element of the system. While most of my projects used the now defunct DVT platform, I also used Cognex, Avalon, Keyence, Banner, Matrox and various others.

That being said, I have been out of it for a while. Other than a few integration projects and a sales call that turned into nothing, I really haven’t kept up with the technology and have mostly moved on to other endeavors.

About a month or so ago I received a call from someone who said they needed help with an issue that involved Allen-Bradley PLCs, and since that is something I know quite a bit about I said I would do what I could to help them. Usually I concentrate more on training and consulting, but I had a bit of time so I took this small job on short notice.

When we got to the plant after meeting with the technician Ross from MapVision, I was literally floored by what I saw. While I have integrated up to eight or ten cameras into a single machine, here was a self contained inspection station that literally created a 3D model of a complex part in real time that you could manipulate like you were using SolidWorks or ProE!

Beyond this door…

The part I was needed for is really not the point of this post. Yes, there was an Allen-Bradley PLC that controlled a servo that moved the part into the vision area, and yes, there was a problem, but this really had nothing to do with the vision system itself.

This system, the “Quality Gate”, has 35 cameras completely surrounding the part. The image can be rotated to any position and compared with any other image, including a hypothetical “Golden Part”. An algorithm even strobes between the two images, floating colored datum indicators over the part to show exactly where the problems may lie.

Control Screens

According to Ross, even if a camera or two were to be out of commission, there is quite a bit of overlap allowing full inspection to continue.

Now this system is in the range of a half million dollars, so it isn’t a lightly made decision to put one in, but wow! Things have really come a long way since my old ACS days.

Following are a few pictures from my trip. The basic layout is that an automotive part, in this case a welded dashboard assembly, is moved into a precise location and the system is triggered. One of the most important parts of a successful machine vision application is ensuring that the inspection area is completely under control as far as lighting and the visible environment. Because everything is inside of a dedicated vision enclosure, this is easy for the Quality Gate.

Cameras and Lighting

Datum Points

Part entering Quality Gate

As you can see, this isn’t just a few individual uncoordinated cameras looking at a specific small item, it is instead an overall inspection of the entire part. One of the things I learned very quickly is that this takes a tremendous amount of memory and processing horsepower. One of the reasons this wasn’t done when I was doing a lot of machine vision work is that the technology simply didn’t exist. In the last ten years the size and cost of available computer memory has changed immensely, and even the camera technology and resolution has evolved a lot.

Anyway, this is pretty much the most amazing machine vision system I have ever seen, and I attend at least one automation show with lots of machine vision vendors every year. Of course it would be difficult to justify setting up this full system for just a few days. I’m sure MapVision does have booths at trade shows, but they are probably either just showing videos or have a small demo with a few cameras. This would do no justice to what I saw. So if you are involved in automotive manufacturing and haven’t talked to MapVision, I would encourage to do so. You will be impressed!

Posted in Applications, gauging, Vendors and Manufacturers, vision Tagged with: ,


Today’s post, as promised last week, is written by Ryan McCarthy, a reader of this blog. While I always offer to place a reciprocal link to the website of whoever contributes guest posts to this site, amazingly Ryan is neither currently a blogger nor does he work for Unitronics. One plug I will give him though; he lives in Florida and is looking for work in the controls and automation field, so if any of you can help out, hit me up and I will put you in contact. We have corresponded a bit and he seems like he would be a great hire or automation partner, plus he writes quite well! Ryan, you really should start a blog yourself. Anyway, since I don’t know much about the subject other than that it is a PLC with built-in HMI (or vice-versa), I’ll let Ryan take it from here.


Unitronics is a younger company that started in 1989 and has since grown to be a more common name in the industry. Unitronics offers PLCs that are “All-in-One”, which means all their PLCs have a built-in HMI as well as communications. Based on my experience on other platforms, this really simplifies things. When I started out I had entire days spent getting a laptop set up to handle a project, from a communications software, an HMI software, perhaps two versions of a PLC platform when working to update a PLC. With Unitronics there are only three pieces of software total, the U90 Ladder, VisiLogic, or UniLogic.

The big upside of Unitronics is the very low cost of hardware. I/O modules are 100-300, whether discrete, analog, RTD and whatnot. Estimates I saw on their high-end processors that include the HMI are less than $1,500. However, depending on which platform you go with, the cost might be higher due to programming time. Their lower end runs in the few hundreds. Mind you, these still have touch screen displays around $400 included in that price. Development time is a bit higher in that environment, and there are several more constraints, however I’ve seen it have popularity with “copy-and-paste” applications for product lines.

I almost forgot this – they offer free support. Some of you might be thinking “free? Yeah you get what you pay for”. That may be true, but I’ve gotten to meet some of their technical support engineers and the guys are great! They have a forum on their website with both tech support and altruistic integrators helping answer questions. Personally, I’m a big fan of the company. They are strictly a hardware company and make no money on the software side.

You could look at their three-product series as tiers – low, middle, and high. The U90 series covers keyboard entry and text display type HMIs, current models being sold are the Jazz and M91, under 50 total I/O sort of range. Vision covers their base touchscreen models, the V130-V1210 and SAMBA processors, which have their varying HMI sizes, processing power, and memory. This covers projects up to 1000 I/O with snap-in expansions. UniStream covers their high-end product line, which comes with an improved ladder diagram and enhanced features all around. This line can expand to 2000 I/O.

Now that a general overview is covered I want to go into a little detail on each of those platforms – U90 Ladder, VisiLogic, and UniLogic.

U90 Ladder – The U90 ladder is for very simple inputs and displays. It is like VisiLogic except with the limitations of keyboard entry as opposed to touch screen, and strictly text display. As a result, the HMI and complexity of applications on this platform are limited. Going into detail about VisiLogic pretty well covers the logic functionalities of both the U90 Ladder and VisiLogic.


Shows easily accessible tabs for hardware, ladder and HMI “All-in-One”.

You would start by configuring your hardware, which is a very visual drag and drop process. This allows you to visualize exactly how you would build your snap in I/O and expansions on to the backplane. See the following for an example:

This shows IO expansion, snap-in I/O, the processor and its built-in HMI on the VisiLogic platform.

After configuring your hardware, you might setup your communications. The controller supports serial, TCP/IP, and OPLC communications. The ladder has a few drawbacks, it is an addressed (not tag-based) database without user-defined tags or add-on instructions, so you’ll be spending some time on your I/O upfront. There is a third-party simulator available for 30 euros to test your project and it’s strictly for certain VisiLogic configurations. Side note – I’ve heard it’s not so great (“sucks”) from an integrator, but I have no experience using it myself. You must connect every element in the ladder manually by placing them or connecting them with a line, it doesn’t do anything intuitively like most platforms. As long as you use the right communication protocol for your project, communications are nice and function blocked.

The HMI is nice, but different from the norm. Most applications I have made or seen involve a lot of stacking, which is disabled in VisiLogic. I can’t say that this is a bad thing, I think it makes the graphics much cleaner from the programming side, I just see it as a creative constraint. It’s all intuitive once you adjust, and I like the way things look afterwards, although it is generally a dated platform and lacks time saving functionalities.

Briefly – VisiLogic is extremely cost effective, great for most small jobs.

UniLogic – I’m going to cover features of UniLogic that are not included in VisiLogic. It’s their upgraded and most up-to-date platform. Apart from the list below I took from somewhere on their website, UniLogic has a WebServer for developing web pages within the HMI side of the PLC. It offers C programming for writing functions blocks to have on all your projects. UniLogic also allows communicating with the SQL database and querying it via IP address. This is one of the coolest features in my opinion, because it makes the bridge to IT more accessible than most platforms, and cost-free.

Data Tags

UniLogic is based on lexical data tags, not operands. The memory is dynamically allocated depending on the data tags you create, and the data type you link to your tags.

Data Tag Structs

These may be:

Automatically created: UniLogic creates data tag structs automatically where necessary, such as when you configure Hardware and communications, or use timers in your program.

User-defined: You set up structs according to the needs of your program.


Via Configuration, not Ladder. For example, if your application uses MODBUS, you set the desired operations/commands and operand areas in each slave configuration. You the set the frequency of data communication in the Properties Window for each slave.

User-defined Function Blocks (UDFBs). Take any UniLogic function (which are equal to VisiLogic subroutines), define input and output data tags, and then drag the function to any point in your program.

VNC–  Remote Access. You can use any VNC client to remotely access your controllers.

Customize the UniLogic interface. You can dock or unpin any window in the software. In addition, note that UniLogic will fit any PC screen without any degradation in quality. The main work window can be zoomed to suit your needs.

Overall I look forward to working with one of these. I see huge potential with IT integration and very minor capital expense.
That covers my light research on Unitronics PLCs. I hope this gives a decent overview of Unitronics, although it certainly is from a programmer’s perspective. If anyone knows hardware well I would appreciate a lengthy discussion with which to become more aware of the tradeoffs.


As you can tell, Ryan did his research and wrote up an excellent post discussing lots of good information on the Unitronics PLC platform. He certainly made it easy for me to add it to the blog’s resources page and it’s a good easy and informative read.

I am always looking for guest posts on automation-related topics. If anyone is interested in writing a post or contributing any other informative material, let me know! Oh, and if you are in Florida and need a controls guy who is always learning and curious, consider contacting Ryan!


Posted in PLCs, Vendors and Manufacturers Tagged with: , , , , , , ,

Automation Consulting, LLC Open House

When I started this blog back at the end of 2010 I really just did it for fun. At that time I wanted to make sure it contained useful information and was non-commercial in nature.

Then I went back into business for myself in 2012. Because I was mostly contracting to machine builders and integrators and had as much work as I wanted, most of the posts were based on the jobs I was doing or whatever technical things I thought of.

By 2014 I was spending a lot of my time teaching classes for Automation Training, so quite a few posts mentioned them and some of my travels.

Now that I’ve transitioned into providing training at my own facility, of course I am driven to mention more of my stuff on the blog. That certainly wasn’t the original intent when I started, but so be it. That is mostly what I am involved with at the moment.

So this is a pretty important week for me. My first student for my new course is doing two days this week, Monday and Tuesday. Because he gets random days off, he can’t take all 5 days consecutively. That’s one of the advantages of having my own facility, I can be flexible. Tuesday evening the owner of Automation Training is coming down from Canada, both for my open house and for a meeting with another important customer/client of mine, Automation NTH. We will be discussing some cooperative ventures that hopefully will benefit all three companies.

Then Thursday is my open house itself. If you live in the Nashville Tennessee area I’d love to have you visit! Of course there will be food, and several automation vendors will be here to answer questions. I wish I could say you could see “My Little Factory” in operation, but I’m afraid that’s still a few months down the road. I still don’t even have my pick and place cylinders. Actually I do have the gripper cylinders, but no gripper fingers to attach to them yet.

For those of you who were looking for some good technical content this week, again I apologize, but I do have a post on Unitronics, written by Ryan McCarthy, ready to go. I also will be writing a post on machine vision showing some of the cool stuff Mapvision does. I was fortunate enough to get to do a quick consulting job for them last week and got some great pictures.

The open house is Thursday, June 8 just off I-40 in Lebanon, Tennessee at my facility. It starts at 10 am and runs until about 3pm. If you can’t make it but want to visit some other time, let me know. Or come take a class! OK, so I’m done being self serving now. Carry on. 🙂

Posted in Me, My Little Factory, Sales and Marketing, Vendors and Manufacturers Tagged with: , , , , , ,

Fabricate – Panel Preparation

Today’s topic is on exactly what happens before you start wiring a control panel. It will also serve as an update on my progress on “My Little Factory”, which has drawn a lot of questions from my readers.

As I mentioned before, I don’t do a lot of panelbuilding, fabrication and wiring any more, most of my work now involves programming and training. In other words, old guy stuff. When I started the original Automation Consulting Services in 1996, much of our work was panelbuilding, and I learned a lot of the techniques as the company grew. Eventually most of the work was done by others, and my wife learned much more about it than I know. She ran the panel shop until we closed the business in 2006, then worked for two panel shops here in Nashville until a couple of years ago when she retired.

Anyway, with my new training facility I have dedicated the first part of this year to building things out, including this “Little Factory”. While my wife was kind enough to build and wire a couple of backplanes for me, most of the work is on me. So when I determined all of the components for my operator panel I decided to document the process of prepping the enclosure. Be prepared for a lot of pictures!

It all starts with figuring out what components you need in your panel or enclosure. In this case, since its purpose is to serve as an operator interface, I ordered a “consolet” type enclosure from Automation Direct. Many of the new components in my factory are ordered from them; they are easy to order from online and they ship for free in a day or two.

The Operator Interface itself is a “C-More” 7 inch diagonal touchscreen. I chose it because it is fairly inexpensive and has drivers for both Siemens S7 and Allen-Bradley. I’m not sure how it will talk to the Beckhoff 9020 PLC yet, but possibly Modbus or Ethernet IP.

The pushbuttons and fittings were a first guess at what I would use. I originally intended to use 3 buttons, but they didn’t fit so I used two. The green button serves two purposes: power on/reset for faults and the E-Stop circuit, and an index/cycle button for the cleated conveyor. The red button is of course an emergency stop. I have quite a few pushbuttons and pilot lights from old projects, so I just used those. I also had all of the fittings.

You can see the piece of graph paper underneath the touchscreen. After measuring the back of the HMI I used graph paper to outline the cutout.

These pictures show the process of transferring the cutout size to the face of the consolet. If I were doing this professionally, I would create a CAD drawing of all of the surfaces of the consolet, measure all of the components and provide a formal drawing to my panelbuilder. Since I am doing everything, I can just “wing it”. I have a pretty good eye for things being straight, and the graph paper helps, so I didn’t have to do much actual measuring.

The ultimate goal is to get a taped outline of your cutout onto the surface you need to cut out. The tape is a cutting guide, and also serves to protect the surface from the saw.

After taping the outline, I drilled holes in the four corners of the rectangle. The key here is to make sure that the holes don’t extend beyond the edge of the tape. I’ve found that a magnet is useful to pick up the big shavings from the drill. The holes should be big enough to allow the jigsaw blade to fit through them I also drilled small pilot holes before using the larger bit. The advantage of using a smaller jigsaw blade is that you can curve the cut slightly. The saw blade can then be run back and forth toward the corners of the rectangle to make the edges straight.

After finishing all of the cuts a magnet and vacuum cleaner was used to pick up all the loose metal. I used a flatt file to smooth all of the edges, removed all of the tape and cleaned the surfaces with WD-40 and “Goo-Gone”, the little bottle shown next to the open consolet. After that its good to check and ensure that the HMI fits in the hole, you’d hate to have to come back and file the opening any more!

I used the same graph paper to mark where the pushbutton holes would be drilled. Notice that I had originally marked for three buttons, but I found that they wouldn’t all fit when I looked at the inside of the consolet. This is again where, for a serious design project, you would want to draw everything ahead of time.

The item shown in the next frame that I used to mark the holes is affectionately know as a “pinger”, the technical name would be a spring-loaded center punch. This item is also commonly used to mark screw holes on an enclosure backplane. After marking the centers I used a small drill to make pilot holes.

The pushbuttons are both 30mm in size, and I happen to still have my Greenlee punches for several different sizes. You can see in the next frame that I also have a stepper bit that is a good size for the shaft of the 30mm punch.

I then used the stepper bit to drill the holes larger so that the shaft of my knockout would fit through the hole. I also had a picture of my old hydraulic knockout kit which I sold when I closed my company in 2006. As you can see it had a lot of different sized punches in it and was much quicker to use. I’m glad I kept my old wrench driven set though. As you can see the magnet also came in handy again.

When using the punch it is important to put the items together correctly; stud through the hole in the die and then through the front of the hole in the panel, then thread the cutting die onto the back. I once had a guy who worked for me put the die on backwards and he snapped the stud right in two. This is surprisingly easy when using the hydraulic punch.

I like to use vise grips to turn the stud. That way I can let go of them and turn the panel, and they stay connected.

After about 12-15 full turns of the stud the hole is ready to notch. As you can see in these pictures, there is an anti-rotation ring around the body of the pushbutton. The little stub on the ring fits into a notch that stops the device from rotating within the hole. The best tool to put this notch in is called a “nibbler”. I have one but forgot to take a picture of it, I’m sure you can find a picture online. If not, e-mail me and I’ll send you a picture. You can see what the ring looks like installed.

There are four fittings on the back of the consolet for cable entry. Two of then are 1/2″ fittings, which required another knockout, while two of them were drilled with a stepper bit. There are also three holes on the bottom used for mounting screws.

The tool shown in the lower left is known as a deburring tool. This is used to remove sharp edges from the holes. In the lower right you can then see the prepared consolet and associated components prior to assembly.

These pictures show the assembled consolet on a table, then bolted to the extrusion frame. After a bit of wiring there is the HMI powered up.

This picture is of the powered up consolet on the machine side of the frame. The picture below is of the left, or process side of the “Factory”.

As you can see, some progress has been made, but there is a long way to go. The disc on the right side is the dial table, and as you can see I have painted and mounted the process tanks. I am still waiting in delivery of the pneumatic components for the pick and places and the SMC dial table mechanism. Part of the escapements have been made. I had mentioned possibly needing to use a machine shop to finish out the escapements; I may now be able to do it myself if I can get hold of some of the proper sized aluminum angle. More updates to follow next month.

By the way, I will be having an open house at my new facility toward the end of the week of June 5. If you are in the Nashville area, stop in and say hi! I will announce the actual date next week when I have finalized things.

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